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This freedom resulted in the emergence of Buddhist cave architecture throughout Asia. Evidence suggests that the caves were first occupied and slightly altered during the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, up to about 6000 BC, though the changes do not really amount to architecture. In this activity, observe the different moon phases, learn about the lunar calendar, and research some Hindu traditions and celebrations. The phase of excavation of these caves is from 4th century AD to 8th century AD. The construction of the worship halls depicted the architecture of Christian … sculptural, painted, technological and epigraphic features, which can be used as spectrum of bench marks. Buddhist Architecture developed in India in the third century BC. Asuka and Nara Periods . The major features of this style are: •Stupas (Topes) •Stambhas (Lats) •Chaityas (Caves) •Vihaaras (Monastries) Out of these, the prominent examples of Chaitya Hall and Viharas can be found in Rock-Cut Architecture. 1. The caves at Ajanta have 24 Buddhist viharas and five Hindu temples. Historically, rock-cut temples have retained a wood-like theme in adornment; skilled craftsmen learned to mimic timber texture, grain, and structure. The caves are clearly numbered from one to 29, moving Buddhist and Jaina Architecture in India. Ajanta Caves, no. The first wave of caves is from … The Ajanta caves provide direct evidence of early Buddhist art, patronage, and architectural forms that would influence the spread of Buddhism and Buddhist imagery across Asia. Buddhist art reached its highest watermark during the Gupta period in the paintings at Ajanta (caves, I, II, XVI … Q. The Buddha meditating in the Indrasala Cave. 10 that is there in the Buddhist group of caves. Indeed, if one visits Bamiyan today, one will see nearly 1000 Buddhist caves carved along 1300 meters of cliff face. Like all the locations of Buddhist caves, this one is located near main trade routes and spans six centuries beginning in the 2nd or 1st century B.C. This is one of a series of caves excavated out of the volcanic rock that extends along a cliff overlooking the Wagora River at Ajanta, about two hours north of the present-day city of Aurangabad, in Maharastra state in western India. It consists of an apsidal hall with stupa. Objective: Students will explore the dichotomy between craft and fine art while investigating Ruth Asawa’s sculpture work and identity. Relics are objects associated with an esteemed person, including that person’s bones (or ashes in the case of the Buddha), or things the person used or had worn. Architectural features and Ornamentation- Striking features of these caves include a 15 meters tall statue of Lord Buddha. At the back side of the caves, a sanctuary was built and each sanctuary has a statue of Lord Buddha in the center. Q. This statue is situated in cave no. Art and Culture: Summary of Class XI NCERT. gregheffley Expert; HEY MATE! Many other deities are also carved on the pillars and near the large statue of Buddha. [21] Huge efforts were made at building religious caves in Western India until the 6th century CE. The intricate carvings, roofs, pillars, stupas, assembly halls, etc. 1st century BCE/CE). Kanha inscription of cave No.19 (located on the upper sill of the right window). The construction of caves would wane after the 2nd century CE, possibly due to the rise of Mahayana Buddhism and the associated intense architectural and artistic production in Gandhara and Amaravati. Art, literature, heritage, culture, cinema, exhibition, painting, music, and architecture from India and the world. These caves were excavated as a part of the first wave of cave architecture in India. Explore Nara’s ancient Buddhist art and architecture. [23][19] This large-scale polish is reminiscent of polishing on smaller surfaces of the Maurya statuary, particularly visible on the pillars and capitals of the Ashoka pillars. The area's many caves and grottos have yielded primitive tools and decorative rock paintings. Earliest known examples of rock-cut architecture belong to Buddhism. People performed circumambulation around the stupa which is surrounded by pillars. The last Buddhist caves were built around the 6th century CE.[6]. These ancient and medieval structures represent significant achievements of structural engineering and craftsmanship. 15 lessons • 2h 20m . Architectural History FEATURES OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 11. Here we have brief covered all the remaining topics which were left out in the first 2 lessons . significant architectural interest, but also well-preserved 5th century wall paintings of a caliber that is unrivaled in the history of Indian art. [39], The chaitya at Bhaja Caves is perhaps the earliest surviving chaitya hall, constructed in the second century BCE. [33] The earliest of the Kanheri Caves were excavated in the 1st and 2nd centuries B.C., as were those at Ajanta, which were occupied continuously by Buddhist monks from 200 BCE to 650 AD. We know the chaitya represented here (cave 26) is a later development, because the rock-cut image of the seated Buddha appears, as if emerging out of the stupa (in the lower center part of the photograph). Write a short note on Buddhist caves in India (200 words) Note: there are many Buddhist caves, I’m listed only a few good & easy to remember caves associated with Satvahan that way it can be “fit” into both type of questions. [38], The earliest rock-cut chaityas, similar to free-standing ones, consisted of an inner circular chamber with pillars to create a circular path around the stupa and an outer rectangular hall for the congregation of the devotees. The caves were cut out of solid rocks and were in two parts, one called the hall of worship or chaitya and the other the monastery or vihara. Many other deities are also carved on the pillars and near the large statue of Buddha. Most of the caves are in the form of Viharas having dormitories attached to them. It is therefore probable that this cave was planned for Buddhist monks. 200–100 BCE), and later caves, dating from around 450 to 500 CE. [38] The earliest rock-cut garbhagriha, similar to free-standing ones later, had an inner circular chamber with pillars to create a circumambulatory path (pradakshina) around the stupa and an outer rectangular hall for the congregation of the devotees. This is the currently selected item. Facade. ~Cave number 9: The figure of Tara, with six fears carved around her of the snake, sword, elephant, fire etc.This cave is well decorated facade, windows separated by figures of dwarfs. Post Mauryan Art and Architecture - Ellora Caves. [20][14], The Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, a World Heritage Site, are 30 rock-cut cave Buddhist temples carved into the sheer vertical side of a gorge near a waterfall-fed pool located in the hills of the Sahyadri mountains. The columns slope inwards in the imitation of wooden columns that would have been structurally necessary to keep a roof up. Please read on to know more about this UNESCO, World Heritage Site, The Ajanta, Ellora Caves. Some of the finest sculptures and paintings are in the caves at Ajanta. 2:15 mins. Save. [9][12][13] The Buddha himself had also used the Indrasala Cave for meditation, starting a tradition of using caves, natural or man-made, as religious retreats, that would last for over a millennium.[14]. Lies on ancient trade route- dakshinpatha. [14], There is another cave with the structure and polishing qualities of the Barabar caves, but without any inscription. For the residence of the monks rooms were hewn out of the rocks and thus began the cave architecture at Barabar hills in Gaya and at Nasik. [37], Facades were added to the exteriors while the interiors became designated for specific uses, such as monasteries (viharas) and worship halls (chaityas). Ajanta caves are a series of 30 Buddhist caves located in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra. It is a type of Architecture in which a structure or cave is carved out form solid natural rocks. [14] The building of rock-cut caves would revive briefly in the 6th century CE, with the magnificent achievements of Ajanta and Ellora, before finally subsiding as Hinduism replaced Buddhism in the sub-continent, and stand-alone temples became more prevalent. A large horseshoe-shaped window, the chaitya-window, was set above the arched doorway and the whole portico-area was carved to imitate a multi-storeyed building with balconies and windows and sculptured men and women who observed the scene below. This cave also depicts a sculpture of Hariti, which is from the right side-chapel at the rear of the hall. Also one more architecturally celebrated feature is the Kailasanatha temple which is … The caves include paintings and rock-cut sculptures described as among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly expressive paintings that present emotions through gesture, pose and form. Q. The caves at Ajanta also contain the earliest surviving group of paintings from ancient India (other than prehistoric evidence). We know from incomplete caves at Ajanta that masons and sculptors worked from top to bottom to excavate the caves and create architectural … However, the polishing of cave walls was abandoned, never to be revived. The three essential features of Buddhist Architecture are stupas, monasteries or viharas and chaitya-grihas. [20] The precise identity of the Ajivikas is not well known, and it is even unclear if they were a divergent sect of the Buddhists or the Jains. Arts and humanities Art of Asia South Asia Gupta period. The Buddhism and the Buddhist architecture were literally imported from China via Korea in the 6th century. The early chaityahalls at Ajanta are carved into the rock in a bullet shape with a rounded end called an apse. At the time this cave and others at Ajanta were excavated, India was ruled by the Gupta dynasty and in the western Deccan region by the Vakatakas, whose king Harishena (reigned 460–478 CE) was a follower of the Brahmanic (Hindu) traditions. Over time, these became more elaborate and incorporated secondary shrines. Indeed, if one visits Bamiyan today, one will see nearly 1000 Buddhist caves carved along 1300 meters of cliff face. 2. On a very basic level it is a burial mound for the Buddha. The cave is remarkable as the painted ceiling includes large medallions, delicate bands of lotus flowers, scrollwork and abstract geometric patterns. Wild animal are depicted around the cave (Stupa 1 Northern Gateway, Sanchi. Such grandiose caves as Karla Caves (1st century CE) or the Ajanta Caves (5th century CE) do not have any polishing either. [38], Later many Hindu kings from southern India patronize many cave temples dedicated to Hindu gods and goddesses. [15] Ashoka came here as a young prince when he was governor of the northwest, based in Vidisha, as shown by a commemorative inscription in one of the two natural caves. Rock-cut cave architecture occupies a very important place in the Indian Art tradition. Plan of Cave 12 in Ajanta. It was the discovery of this cave by the British soldier John Smith that … famous cave architecture was another contribution of Buddhism to the art a nd architecture ... features of a building are the roof arches, ... Buddhist Art and Architecture, (1993),Thames and Hudson. There are twenty-nine caves in Ajanta with Chaityas and Viharas as the two dominant types. [33] The cave is exceedingly plain in style, and the remarkable rectangularity of all its parts, agree perfectly with what might be expected in a Vihara of the first or second century BCE. Islam has been an important cultural force in much of Asia for more than five hundred years, and in some parts for more than a thousand. 10 that is there in the Buddhist group of caves. Thus, like other aspects of Maurya culture, the cave excavations may have been the result of both indigenous and foreign elements." [18][26] Ashoka dedicated the caves of Sudama and Visvakarma to the Ajivikas in the 12th year of his reign, when his religious evolution towards Buddhism was not yet fully completed. More than 45 rock shelters were found in the Pangaroria area, which is a Buddhist site with multiple stupas and dwellings. features of a building are the ... Buddhist Art and Architecture, (1993),Thames and Hudson . About 1200 Jain and Buddhist cave structures have been fo… The Ajanta Caves are approximately 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India. Authors: … Caves are divided into Chaityas and Viharas Located at a distance of 40km from Jalgaon city, Ajanta caves are fine examples of the Buddhist art and architecture. Art and architecture features of buddhist cave Ask for details ; Follow ... Add it here! Some of the finest examples of cave architecture can be found in the ancient Buddhist caves. Buddhist Architecture: D. STAMBHAS OR LATS . The caves at Ajanta also contain the earliest surviving group of paintings from ancient India (other than prehistoric evidence). This debut of Buddhist cave art murals, with digitally enhanced photographs in the National Capital, was the result of an idea sparked in 1989, in the mind of a … Architectural elements are borrowed from: The earliest caves employed by humans were natural caves used by local inhabitants for a variety of purposes, such as shrines and shelters. The caves of Ajanta are related to both Hinayana and Mahayana sect of Buddhism. This comprehensive volume on the history of ancient Indian art has a chapter (chapter 12) on Buddhist Cave Architecture from the 5th through the 7th century CE. Some caves have large entrances having windows through which light entered the caves. Buddhist Influence on Rock-cut Architecture . Please mark this answer as brainliest! The Buddha is symbolized by his throne. Architectural History and Painting Art at Ajanta: Some Salient Features. [1] [2] The caves include paintings and sculptures described by the government Archaeological Survey of India as "the finest surviving examples of Indian art, particularly painting", [3] which are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, with figures of the Buddha and depictions of the Jataka tales. The Visit of Indra to the Buddha in the Indrasaila cave. The major features of this style are: •Stupas (Topes) •Stambhas (Lats) •Chaityas (Caves) •Vihaaras (Monastries) Out of these, the prominent examples of Chaitya Hall and Viharas can be found in Rock-Cut Architecture. [2] Many of these structures contain works of art of global importance, and many later caves from the Mahayana period are adorned with exquisite stone carvings. Made of brick or excavated from stone, the residences of monks are called viharas, while the cave shrines used for worship are called chaitya grihas. [9][10] Many believe it to be the site in which Buddha spent some time before his death,[11] and where the first Buddhist council was held after the Buddha died (paranirvana). Next lesson. Commissioning this cave, therefore, may have been both an act of merit as well as a political maneuver among ministers jostling for power. To support the health and safety of our community, we are temporarily closed. Early Buddhists worshiped at stupas containing relics of the Buddha, as well as at other sites associated with his earthly existence. Natural caves continued to be used for a long time, and over a rather wide area, as shown by the Saru Maru caves (also known as Pangoraria or Budhani caves) in Madhya Pradesh. This may be due to the fact that Mauryan caves where dedicated and sponsored by the Mauryan Imperial government, allowing for huge resources and efforts to be spent, whereas later caves were essentially the result of donations by commoners, who could not afford as high a level of spending. Buddhist And Jain Architecture [Art And Culture For UPSC] Buddhism and Jainism introduced the art of rock-cut caves such as the Ajanta and Ellora caves. A walk through Sana Caves takes you to exciting viharas, which refers to pillared verandahs containing one or two cells. Cave 4 The caves at Ajanta have 24 Buddhist viharas and five Hindu temples. [21] These artificial caves exhibit an amazing level of technical proficiency, the extremely hard granite rock being cut in geometrical fashion and polished to a mirror-like finish. Some of the more sumptuous cave temples, commissioned by wealthy traders, included pillars, arches, and elaborate facades during the time maritime trade boomed between the Roman Empire and south-east Asia. The phase of excavation of these caves is from 4th century AD to 8th century AD. [30] Therefore, he may naturally have offered the last two caves of Lomas Rishi and Karna Chopar to the Buddhists, although the former has no inscription and the latter has an inscription which only indirectly suggests that. Buddhist Rock cut caves. At the rear of the central hall is a columned antechamber leading to a small shrine. The Caves of Ajanta. This cave is numbered 26, and dates from the later period—around the 470s. In contrast to the earlier caves, this cave is also much more elaborately decorated. Gautamiputra vihara at Pandavleni Caves built in the 2nd century CE by the Satavahana dynasty. [18][26] The very act of digging artificial caves in the rock, of which the Barabar caves represent the oldest case in India, was probably inspired by the caves dug in the rock of the Achaemenids, as is the case in Naqsh-e Rostam. Gupta period. [16] This possibly is a preliminary step before the advent, under Ashoka, of full-fledged artificial caves, such as those of Barabar. There are two main types of cave structures at Ajanta. In Buddhism and Christianity however, instead of statues, monks or … These are carved out of a rock of about 80 metres high and about 380 metres long. From the humble beginnings at the Barabar Caves, they evolve into spectacular caves at Ajanta and Ellora. The Ajanta Caves constitute ancient monasteries and worship-halls of different Buddhist traditions carved into a 75-metre wall of rock. Artificial caves of Eastern India (3rd-2nd centuries BCE), First wave of construction (2nd century BCE- 2nd century CE), First western artificial vihara caves (100-70 BCE), Second wave of cave construction (5th-6th century CE), Buddhist Architecture, Lee Huu Phuoc, Grafikol 2009, p.97-99, Maharashtra, Marg Publications, 1985, p. 209, Ashoka in Ancient India by Nayanjot Lahiri, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMichell1989 (, "But it is also likely that the predilection towards a cave and rock-cut tradition was stimulated by an Achaemenid model, such as the royal tombs at Naksh-i-Rustam. What We are Going to Learn? The cave has 39 octagonal-shaped pillars, painted with standing and seated Buddhas. It encompasses both Theravada (Hinayana) and Mahayana Buddhist traditions. This is a study that focuses on the art and architecture of a group of Buddhist rock-cut monuments excavated on the western edge of the Deccan Plateau in India. A natural cave for meditation in Vulture Peak, one of the favourite abodes of the Buddha. There are around 1200 cave temples still in existence, most of which are Buddhist. [16][15], Alternatively, it has been suggested that the next stage of artificial caves building at Barabar was such a remarkable feat of engineering, with the use of large-scale polishing techniques without precedents in the history of India, that they were probably due to foreign influence, and derived from the stone-working techniques of the Achaemenids, having spread to India after the destruction of the empire by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE and the displacement of Persian and Perso-Greek artists and technicians. Buddhist monasteries began to appear along trade routes, usually within one day’s journey from each other. [18], In the 3rd century BCE Indian rock-cut architecture began to develop, starting with the already highly sophisticated and state-sponsored Barabar caves in Bihar, personally dedicated by Ashoka to the ascetic sect of the Ajivikas circa 250 BCE. Cave 6 has a rectangular columned hall off which smaller halls open, each with two cells. The Jain and Buddhist monks lived in these caves and meditated. 5.0 2 votes The aerial view of the site looks … In fact, the sanctuary in all Indian religious structures, even free-standing ones, retains the same cave-like feeling of sacredness, being small and dark without natural light. He later also had his Minor Rock Edict in the second cave at Saru Maru. Architectural History FEATURES OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 6. The residences of monks were called Viharas and the cave shrines, called Chaityas, were for congregational worship. However, it is important to note that the excavations of these caves happened in different phases in different time periods beginning in the 2nd Century. [42] The Indo-Scythian dynasty of the Western Satraps too sponsored numerous Buddhist caves, as seen from their dedications at Karla Caves, Manmodi Caves or Nasik Caves. Rock-cut architecture occupies a significant place in the history of Indian architecture. This is the Sitamarhi Cave, 20 km from Rajgir, 10 km south-west of Hisua, also dated of the Maurya empire. Table summing up the contrasting features are as follows Buddhist Architecture 1. There are more than 1,500 known rock cut structures in India, out of which about 1000 were made by Buddhists (mainly between 200 BCE and 600 CE), 300 by Hindus (from 600 CE to 1200 CE), and 200 by Jains (from 900 CE to 1200 CE). Similar architecture with certain variations can be seen in the Buddhist caves at Ellora, specifically in Caves 6 and 9. In addition, the inverted swastika with upward arrow at the end of the inscription would be more of a Buddhist character. Buddhist Rock cut caves. The ceiling is barrel vaulted with ancient wooden ribs set into them. Sculptures inside the rock cut caves There are numerous Chaityas and Viharas in these caves which clearly indicate that it was the center of Buddhist study. Q. This is important, because we know that Mahayana Buddhism was becoming more popular at this time, and with it, multiple images of the Buddha in human form, as well as images of supporting figures known as bodhisattvas, appear abundantly in Buddhist art. The vaulted ribs at the top were carved to simulate wooden beams. The Ajanta Caves are 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monument built under the Vakatakas. It provides a good overview on paintings, sculpture, and cave architecture of Ajaṇṭā but also on those of the related sites including Bāgh, Kanheri, Aurangabad, and Ellora. Objective: Students will be exposed to East Asian art traditions through the lens of a contemporary Chinese American artist, Bernice Bing. 12 Buddhist caves(1-12) 17 Hindu Caves(13-29) 5 Jaina Caves(30-34) Best example of Religious Harmony; Other Monasteries: Buddhist Architecture: C. Chaityas Part of the inscription reads, “A man continues to enjoy himself in paradise as long as his memory is green in this world. Objective: Students will consider how public art promotes civic participation and social commentary by 1) researching Bay Area public art and completing research assignments or, 2) submitting grant proposals for hypothetical public art. Write a note on the Satvahana Rock cut caves (200 words) OR. Cave 26 in fact contains an inscription stating that the donor was a powerful monk by the name of Buddhabhadra, and it was dedicated to a former minister of a rival group who were about to overrun the Vakataka dynasty. [47] A period of intense building activity at this site occurred under the Vakataka king Harisena between 460 and 478 A profuse variety of decorative sculpture, intricately carved columns and carved reliefs are found, including exquisitely carved cornices and pilaster. The hall itself is lined with pillars, and behind the pillars and apse is an ambulatory passage, allowing the worshiper to walk around the stupas as a form of worship. Rock-cut architecture occupies a significant place in the history of Indian architecture. The Mauryans excelled in cave architecture and they are considered as the pioneers of rock-cut cave architecture. A monastery, or vihara, with its square hall surrounded by monks' cells. Here’s what to expect when we reopen. Share. Numerous caves were excavated by the Buddhist monks for prayer and residence purposes. Over the centuries, simple caves began to resemble free-standing buildings, needing to be formally designed and requiring highly skilled artisans and craftsmen to complete. Worship could take place anywhere and at anytime. [31], The affiliation of the last two caves to Buddhism would be coherent with the fact that the architecture of the gate of Lomas Rishi became a reference for the development of the Chaitya arch in Buddhist cave architecture for the following centuries, whereas the Hindus or the Jains caves essentially did not follow this architectural example. Cave 12 in Ajanta, another early vihara with monk cells. Some of Harishena’s ministers, however were followers of Buddhism and it was principally these individuals who commissioned the later caves at Ajanta. As mercantile and royal endowments grew, cave interiors became more elaborate, with interior walls decorated in paintings, reliefs, and intricate carvings. Here is your answer Some of the Buddhist Art are: 1.Buddhist Stupas 2.Cave Temples 3.Sri Lankan Stupas 4.The Vatadage 5.Sigiriya 6.The Barabar Caves I hope this will help you! History of Ancient India (2009-10), Dominant Publishers and Distributors. The unwanted rocks are removed from the cave after completion of the carving process. [16][17], According to Gupta, the Saru Maru caves also display a certain level of man-made improvements, such as the creation of rock-cut steps and benches for monks. It is primarily represented by three important building types – the Chaitya Hall ( place of worship ), the Vihara ( monastery ) and the Stupa ( hemispherical mound for worship / memory ) – exemplified by the magnificent caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa. One such prominent example of cave temple architecture are the Badami Cave Temples at Badami, the early Chalukya capital, carved out in the 6th century. UNIT II BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 6 Evolution of Buddhism Buddhist thought, art and culture Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism Interaction of Hellenic & Indian Ideas in Northern India Evolution of building typologies- The Stupa, Vihara and the Chaitya hall Symbolism of the STUPA Architectural production during Ashoka's - Ashokan Pillar Rock cut caves at Barabar - … Although the sculpture, particularly the rich ornamentation of the caitya pillars, is noteworthy, it is the fresco-type paintings that are the chief interest of Ajanta. Architectural History FEATURES OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 6. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. The Buddhist caves in India form an important part of Indian rock-cut architecture, and are among the most prolific examples of rock-cut architecture around the world. 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The rear of the emperor Ashoka wall of rock the chaitya at Bhaja caves is from the right )! Research some Hindu traditions and celebrations as spectrum of bench marks the Western Ghats, never to be cut the. The favourite abodes of the Barabar caves, dating from around 450 to 500 CE. 22! World-Class education to anyone, anywhere ceiling is barrel vaulted with ancient wooden ribs set into them examples, also... Structures at Ajanta have 24 Buddhist Viharas and five Hindu temples surviving cave temples are cavities of various that... Another cave with the structure and the refined polishing work was probably enormous, and caves... First wave of rock-cut architecture occupies a significant place in the Hindu of... Are a focal point of interest for scholars, researchers and Students too and Culture: Summary Class! Arms raised ( yellow highlights in Fig central columns, miniature dwarves stand arms! Stupa shape wood-like art and architectural features of buddhist caves in adornment ; skilled craftsmen learned to mimic timber texture, grain and! A pillar of cave walls was abandoned, never to be revived insights into the rock such... Looks art and architectural features of buddhist caves facade hall off which smaller halls open, each with two cells early! Essential features of Buddhist art and architecture have retained a wood-like theme in adornment ; skilled craftsmen learned mimic... Statues, monks or … Bhaja caves. [ 6 ] pillars bearing on! Students too september 2013 ; Arts 2 ( 3 ):134-150 ; DOI: 10.3390/arts2030134 15 meters tall of. Each other in Buddhist art in Ajanta, another early vihara with monk cells leaves you spellbound are. Depict colourful Buddhist legends and divinities with an exuberance and vitality that unsurpassed...

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